Strength Training


Current Medical and Scientific Research Journals


Feel good.     Look good.     And live well!


     Loss of Muscle Mass associated with Aging (Sarcopenia) 
      "Fountain of Youth"
"Strength training is the most neglected component of fitness programs but one of the most beneficial."Open link in new window
(The Nutrition Source - Harvard School of Public Health)
Lists 16 references supporting strength training as a well-established "Fountain of Youth"

"Strength training has unique potential in helping to arrest much of the functional decline and disease progression associated with aging."Open link in new window
(Diabetes Spectrum - Journal of the American Diabetes Association)
In other words:Only strength training can be this effective in slowing/stopping/reversing the aging process.

"Adults who engage in strength training are less likely to experience loss of muscle mass, functional decline, and fall-related injuries..."Open link in new window
(Journal of the American Medical Association)
In other words: Strength training can prevent fraility and its consequences in the elderly

In older men, "periodized resistance training is very effective in producing ... gains in muscle size and strength"Open link in new window
(Journal of Applied Physiology)
In other words: I can't say it any simpler. Old guys get bigger and stronger with strength training.

"High-resistance weight training leads to significant gains....[at least] up to 96 years of age."Open link in new window
(Journal of the American Medical Association)
In other words: Intense strength training is safe and effective at any age. The older, the better.

"Regardless of age, an exercise intensity of at least 60% [of maximum] was required to elicit a significant increase [in muscle mass]"Open link in new window
(Journal of Physiology)
In other words: You have to push significant weight to get the benefit.


     Overweight 
"Strength training is crucial to weight control, because individuals who have more muscle mass have a higher metabolic rate"Open link in new window
(from website of U.S. Gov. Centers for Disease Control)
In other words: The CDC says it very well.

"Most experts believe that maintaining muscle mass is fundamental for the long-term management of obesity"Open link in new window
(Diabetes Spectrum - Journal of the American Diabetes Association)
In other words: Strength training can stop or reverse the loss of lean muscle mass caused by dieting and aerobic exercise.


     Diabetes 
"16 weeks of strength training produced dramatic improvements in glucose control that are comparable to taking diabetes medication"Open link in new window
(from website of U.S. Gov. Centers for Disease Contro)
In other words: Strength training is as good as medication for diabetes and has many other benefits.

"Even minimal strength training dramatically helps people with impaired glucose metabolism (pre-diabetes)"Open link in new window
(Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise)
In other words: ...one strength training session per week or 10-39 minutes/week provided benefit in terms of minimizing the risk of developing diabetes or IGM as compared to those who only performed strength training for less than 10 minutes per week. This was true even after controlling for age, gender, educational level, family history of diabetes, smoking, and leisure time activities.

"Strength training is associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes for men"Open link in new window
(HSPH News of the Harvard School of Public Health)
In other words: Men who do weight training regularly—for example, for 30 minutes per day, five days per week—may be able to reduce their risk of type 2 diabetes by up to 34%.

"[Research demonstrates] the additive effects of combining aerobic and resistance exercise on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism"Open link in new window
(Diabetes Spectrum - Journal of the American Diabetes Association)
In other words: Strength training and aerobic training each contributes a unique benefit in the management of type 2 diabetes.

"Increased lean body mass has been independently associated with improved insulin sensitivity."Open link in new window
(Diabetes Spectrum - Journal of the American Diabetes Association)
In other words: Strength training increases insulin sensitivity by increasing lean muscle mass.

"Research has supported strength training as being comparable to aerobic exercise in ameliorating [cardiovascular disease.] "Open link in new window
(Diabetes Spectrum - Journal of the American Diabetes Association)
In other words: Strength training has been shown to be at least as effective as aerobic training in addressing cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease

"The older [men] demonstrated a significant increase in total testosterone in response to " strength trainingOpen link in new window
(Journal of Applied Physiology)
In other words: When older guys work out, their testosterone levels rise significantly.


     Fat and Fit 
"[Cardiorespiratory] fitness [is] a significant mortality predictor in older adults, independent of overall or abdominal adiposity."Open link in new window
(Journal of the American Medical Association)
In other words:It is better to be fat and fit than normal weight and sedentary. This is the study that started the fat-but-fit debate in 2007.

"The long-term effect of ...increasing physical activity is likely to be at least as important as weight loss for reducing premature mortality"Open link in new window
(Circulation: Journal of the American Hearth Association)
In other words: Fitness trumps weight when it comes to length of life. Note: Research was done using cardiorespiratory fitness.

"Progressive resistance exercise is efficacious for reducing resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults"Open link in new window
(Diabetes Spectrum - Journal of the American Diabetes Association)
In other words: Strength training can be both safe and beneficial for men with high blood pressure

"[Strength training] represents a valuable strategy to counter age-related impairments in" vascular blood flow.Open link in new window
(Journal of Applied Physiology)
In other words: Resistance exercise training gets the blood flowing for older folks.

"Strength training provides similar improvements in depression as anti-depressant medications."Open link in new window
(U.S. Gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
In other words: Strength training is a natural way for men to deal with depression.

"Resistance Training Improves Mental Health"Open link in new window
(American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine)
In other words: The evidence is quite impressive how resistance training can improve several major mental health issues: less depression, less anxiety, improved memory, improved executive control, less chronic fatigue, improved quality of sleep, improved cognition, improved self-esteem.

"The anxiolytic effects of resistance exercise"Open link in new window
(Frontiers in Psychology)
In other words: ...anxiolytic effects have been observed across a diverse range of populations and dependent measures. These findings provide support for the use of resistance exercise in the clinical management of anxiety.

"Exercise as a Potential Treatment for Drug Abuse: Evidence from Preclinical Studies"Open link in new window
(Frontiers in Psychiatry)
In other words: These studies have provided convincing evidence to support the development of exercise-based interventions to reduce compulsive patterns of drug intake in clinical and at-risk populations.

"When older adults participate in strength training programs, their self-confidence and self-esteem improve, which has a strong impact on their overall quality of life."Open link in new window
(From Centers for Disease Control web site)
In other words: In addition to all the specific benefits of strength training, strength training generally improves a person's quality of life.

"High-intensity strength training exercises are an effective...means to preserve bone density,...muscle mass..."Open link in new window
(Journal of American Medical Association)
In other words: Strength training can enable postmenopausal women to maintain or increase their bone density, muscle mass, strength, and balance.

"Strength training increases bone density and reduces the risk for fractures among women aged 50-70."Open link in new window
(from website of U.S. Gov. Centers for Disease Control)
In other words: There are only two ways to increase bone density naturally: strength traiing is the most important for older folks.

"A relatively brief exposure to exercise significantly improved muscle mass, strength..."Open link in new window
(American Society of Clinical Oncology)
In other words: Strength training reversed muscle degeneration caused by toxic cancer therapies.

"The effectiveness of strength training to ease the pain of osteoarthritis was just as potent, if not more potent, as medications. Similar effects of strength training have been seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis."Open link in new window
(from website of U.S. Gov. Centers for Disease Control)
In other words: Significant strength training is effective for both ostio- and rheumatoid artritis.


     Cancer 
"Higher levels of muscular strength are associated with lower cancer mortality risk in men"Open link in new window
(Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention )
In other words: Strong men have lower cancer risk.


     Other Studies 
"Does habitual dietary intake influence myofiber hypertrophy in response to resistance training?"Open link in new window
(from NIH: U.S. National Library of Medicine: National Center for Biotechnology Information )
In other words: Diet may not affect hypertrophy. (Many successful bodybuilders would question the findings of this research.)

"For Athletes, Risks From Ibuprofen Use"Open link in new window
(New York Times)
In other words: This article about the potential dangers of using NSAIDs for exercise-induced inflamation contains several links to supporting studies.

"Painkillers Before Exercise May Be Bad for the Gut"Open link in new window
(WebMD)
In other words:Several studies suggest that the practise of taking NSAIDs before exercise is ineffective and potentially harmful.